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Careers, Jobs and Education Resources for: Georgia

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The region of present-day Georgia contained the ancient kingdoms of Colchis and Kartli-Iberia. The area came under Roman influence in the first centuries A.D. and Christianity became the state religion in the 330s. Domination by Persians, Arabs, and Turks was followed by a Georgian golden age (11th-13th centuries) that was cut short by the Mongol invasion of 1236. Subsequently, the Ottoman and Persian empires competed for influence in the region. Georgia was absorbed into the Russian Empire in the 19th century. Independent for three years (1918-1921) following the Russian revolution, it was forcibly incorporated into the USSR until the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991. An attempt by the incumbent Georgian government to manipulate national legislative elections in November 2003 touched off widespread protests that led to the resignation of Eduard SHEVARDNADZE, president since 1995. New elections in early 2004 swept Mikheil SAAKASHVILI into power along with his National Movement party. Progress on market reforms and democratization has been made in the years since independence, but this progress has been complicated by Russian assistance and support to the breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Georgian military action in South Ossetia in early August 2008 led to a Russian military response that not only occupied the breakaway areas, but large portions of Georgia proper as well. Russian troops pulled back from most occupied Georgian territory, but in late August 2008 Russia unilaterally recognized the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. This action was strongly condemned by most of the world's nations and international organizations. (from the CIA)


Economic Overview

Georgia's economy has sustained robust gdp growth of close to 10% in 2006 and 12% in 2007, based on strong inflows of foreign investment and robust government spending. however, a widening trade deficit and higher inflation are emerging risks to the economy. areas of recent improvement include increasing foreign direct investment as well as growth in the construction, banking services and mining sectors. georgia's main economic activities include the cultivation of agricultural products such as grapes, citrus fruits, and hazelnuts; mining of manganese and copper; and output of a small industrial sector producing alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, metals, machinery, aircraft and chemicals. the country imports nearly all its needed supplies of natural gas and oil products. it has sizeable hydropower capacity, a growing component of its energy supplies. despite the severe damage the economy suffered due to civil strife in the 1990s, georgia, with the help of the imf and world bank, has made substantial economic gains since 2000, achieving positive gdp growth and curtailing inflation. georgia's gdp growth neared 10% in 2006 and 2007 despite restrictions on commerce with russia. areas of recent improvement include increased foreign direct investment as well as growth in the construction, banking services, and mining sectors. in addition, the reinvigorated privatization process has met with success. however, a widening trade deficit and higher inflation are emerging risks to the economy. georgia has suffered from a chronic failure to collect tax revenues; however, the new government is making progress and has reformed the tax code, improved tax administration, increased tax enforcement, and cracked down on corruption. government revenues have increased nearly four fold since 2003. due to improvements in customs and financial (tax) enforcement, smuggling is a declining problem. georgia has overcome the chronic energy shortages of the past by renovating hydropower plants and by bringing newly available natural gas supplies from azerbaijan. it also has an increased ability to pay for more expensive gas imports from russia. the country is pinning its hopes for long-term growth on a determined effort to reduce regulation, taxes and corruption in order to attract foreign investment. the construction on the baku-t'bilisi-ceyhan oil pipeline, the baku-t'bilisi-erzerum gas pipeline, and the kars-akhalkalaki railroad are part of a strategy to capitalize on georgia's strategic location between europe and asia and develop its role as a transit point for gas, oil and other goods.

Environmental Issues

Air pollution, particularly in rust'avi; heavy pollution of mtkvari river and the black sea; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals

Government Type



4,630,841 (july 2008 est.)


Southwestern asia, bordering the black sea, between turkey and russia


Total: 69,700 sq km land: 69,700 sq km water: 0 sq km

Slightly smaller than south carolina

Country Aliases

Conventional long form: none conventional short form: georgia local long form: none local short form: sak'art'velo former: georgian soviet socialist republic


Name: t'bilisi geographic coordinates: 41 43 n, 44 47 e time difference: utc+4 (9 hours ahead of washington, dc during standard time)

Military Service

18 to 34 years of age for compulsory and voluntary active duty military service; conscript service obligation - 18 months (2005)

International Disputes

Russia and georgia agree on delimiting 80% of their common border, leaving certain small, strategic segments and the maritime boundary unresolved; osce observers monitor volatile areas such as the pankisi gorge in the akhmeti region and the argun gorge in abkhazia; un observer mission in georgia has maintained a peacekeeping force in georgia since 1993; meshkheti turks scattered throughout the former soviet union seek to return to georgia; boundary with armenia remains undemarcated; ethnic armenian groups in javakheti region of georgia seek greater autonomy from the georgian government; azerbaijan and georgia continue to discuss the alignment of their boundary at certain crossing areas

Sources: Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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