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  • Criminology.
    A program that focuses on the systematic study of crime as a sociopathological phenomenon, the behavior of criminals, and the social institutions evolved to respond to crime. Includes instruction in the theory of crime, psychological and social bases of criminal behavior, social value systems and the theory of punishment, criminal law and criminal justice systems, penology, rehabilitation and recidivism, studies of specific types of crime, social attitudes and policy, and applications to specific issues in law enforcement administration and policy.
  • Demography and Population Studies.
    Instructional content is defined in code 45.0501.
  • Demography and Population Studies.
    A program that focuses on the systematic study of population models and population phenomena, and related problems of social structure and behavior. Includes instruction in population growth, spatial distribution, mortality and fertility factors, migration, dynamic population modeling, population estimation and projection, mathematical and statistical analysis of population data, population policy studies, and applications to problems in economics and government planning.
  • Economics.
    Instructional content for this group of programs is defined in codes 45.0601- 45.0699.
  • Economics, General.
    A general program that focuses on the systematic study of the production, conservation and allocation of resources in conditions of scarcity, together with the organizational frameworks related to these processes. Includes instruction in economic theory, micro- and macroeconomics, comparative economic systems, money and banking systems, international economics, quantitative analytical methods, and applications to specific industries and public policy issues.
  • Applied Economics.
    A program that focuses on the application of economic principles and analytical techniques to the study of particular industries, activities, or the exploitation of particular resources. Includes instruction in economic theory; microeconomic analysis and modeling of specific industries, commodities; the economic consequences of resource allocation decisions; regulatory and consumer factors; and the technical aspects of specific subjects as they relate to economic analysis.
  • Econometrics and Quantitative Economics.
    A program that focuses on the systematic study of mathematical and statistical analysis of economic phenomena and problems. Includes instruction in economic statistics, optimization theory, cost/benefit analysis, price theory, economic modeling, and economic forecasting and evaluation.
  • Development Economics and International Development.
    A program that focuses on the systematic study of the economic development process and its application to the problems of specific countries and regions. Includes instruction in economic development theory, industrialization, land reform, infrastructural development, investment policy, the role of governments and business in development, international development organizations, and the study of social, health, and environmental influences on economic development.
  • International Economics.
    A program that focuses on the systematic study and analysis of international commercial behavior and trade policy. Includes instruction in international trade theory, tariffs and quotas, commercial policy, trade factor flows, international finance and investment, currency regulation and trade exchange rates and markets, international trade negotiation, and international payments and accounting policy.
  • Economics, Other.
    Any instructional program in economics not listed above.